The Anti-Mac User Interface (Don Gentner and Jakob Nielsen)

In some sense, WYSIWYG is equivalent to the horselike tractor we discussed earlier in connection with metaphors. WYSIWYG assumes people want paper-style reports: Information might be produced (and even consumed) on screen, but it should still be structured the same way it was on paper. These days, however, who has time to read all the documents we get? In reality, people rarely read information from beginning to end the way they would have read a report in the good old days where even busy managers got at most a single report per day. Instead, electronic information should be modularized and

The Anti-Mac User Interface (Don Gentner and Jakob Nielsen)
Layered Interaction Analysis of Direct Manipulation (Jakob Nielsen)

Figure 2a shows an error I have frequently made myself. The file icon is dragged to the icon representing backups, and not to the Trash icon as intended. This mistake constitutes a lexical level error since the syntax of dragging an icon on top of another icon has been correctly specified. It just happens that the second operand of the command has been given an erroneous value. Further analysis shows that the problem is due to a «capture error» (Norman 1983) because the two commands «delete file» and «backup file» start out almost identically by a gesture sweeping the file icon towards the

Layered Interaction Analysis of Direct Manipulation (Jakob Nielsen)
Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard

User interface standards have become the object of increasingly intense activities in recent years [Abernethy 1988; Holdaway and Bevan 1989], including work in the International Standards Organization (ISO) [Brooke et al. 1990] and the European Community [Stewart 1990]. Work is also going on in national standards organizations [Dzida 1989] and in several major computer companies [Berry 1988; Nielsen 1989b]. These activities are part of a general current interest in information processing standards [Berg and Schumny 1990] but are also based on the widely held feeling that consistency is one of

Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard



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