The Anti-Mac User Interface (Don Gentner and Jakob Nielsen)

The desktop metaphor assumes we save training time by taking advantage of the time that users have already invested in learning to operate the traditional office with its paper documents and filing cabinets. But the next generation of users will make their learning investments with computers, and it is counterproductive to give them interfaces based on awkward imitations of obsolete technologies. Instead, we need to develop new interface paradigms based on the structure of computer systems and the tasks users really have to perform, rather than paradigms that enshrine outmoded technology. The

The Anti-Mac User Interface (Don Gentner and Jakob Nielsen)
Layered Interaction Analysis of Direct Manipulation (Jakob Nielsen)

The principle of direct mappings between dialogue levels seems to provide a better way to conceptualize directness in interactive systems. As shown in Figure 4, the layered protocol model involves several transformations between different units of information and we would want those transformations to be as direct mappings as possible to make it easy for the user to move between the levels. The idea of direct mappings is similar to the mathematical notion of isomorphisms; there is a one-to-one function between the two levels and the relationships between the units of information are the same

Layered Interaction Analysis of Direct Manipulation (Jakob Nielsen)
Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard

These designers were presumably highly motivated to follow the standard since a part of their course grade was determined by their designs and they knew from previous lectures that compliance was to be considered a major usability consideration. Also, the standard was very small and easy to follow, making it almost impossible to overlook rules. Even so, the results show that the designs deviated substantially from the standard. The use of special keys deviated the most, possibly because the test standard specified a drastically different use of the keyboard than that used in most actual

Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard



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